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  Back to Ask the Diabetes Team Questions from November 2002

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  1. My son is constantly testing his blood glucose levels at school which concerns me greatly. I would not dare to tell him not to test but I am unsure of exactly how to handle this situation. What can I do to help him differentiate between highs and lows? Is his type of sensitivity common? (30 Nov 2002)

  2. I have had type 1 diabetes since age 23, and my daughter is ICA, IAA, and GAD positive. However, her pediatric endocrinologist says she does not have diabetes even though she has failed 2 glucose tolerance tests with a final blood sugar of 396 mg/dl [22 mmol/L]. How would you explain these abnormal results? (30 Nov 2002)

  3. I am currently using an insulin pump with a basal rate of 30 units per hour, plus a 75 unit bolus three times daily, a total of 945 units per 24 hours. What kind of pump would handle this size of a daily intake of insulin? (30 Nov 2002)

  4. I never been to a doctor to correctly know what is wrong, but I can say i'm most likely to have hypoglycemia. I say this because its happened twice in my life so far. What do you personally think I should do? (30 Nov 2002)

  5. My son was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, and while sleeping at night, he is soaked with sweat. Is this a sign of low blood sugars? If so, what should we do? (30 Nov 2002)

  6. My 62 year old husband has been running for twenty years, but about six months ago, he started walking with me because he was getting a pain under his ribs after running. Initially after stopping running the pain eased, but now it is returning. (30 Nov 2002)

  7. These things were to be expected for an insulin reaction, but he went into shock and not long after that he turned a yellowish orange color. I have never seen this before, and neither has his mother. The doctors took many tests and couldn't tell me anything. Can you tell me why my husband turned a yellowish orange color during an insulin reaction? (30 Nov 2002)

  8. My son had been taking insulin for over a year, and his A1c level has been 5.3% which suggests values is for someone without diabetes. What does this A1c result mean? Does my son have diabetes or not? (30 Nov 2002)

  9. Visible low blood sugar symptoms are often not recognized by school staff, sometimes my son does not feel his low until he is at 2.0-2.5 mmol/L [36-45 mg/dl], and sometimes it has been more that an hour since his insulin has peaked. How low would my son's sugar have to be and for what length of time before could have a seizure? (29 Nov 2002)

  10. My son was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, and his blood sugars have been consistently high. Is there anything that we should be concerned about? (29 Nov 2002)

  11. My specialist advised that I should always give myself the minimum dose of Humalog per meal, but when I told him I become seriously hypo about an hour after I choose to eat very light meals such as salads he just said to "eat more food". Why should I "eat more food" than everybody else? I adjust my insulin up if a meal requires it, why not down? (29 Nov 2002)

  12. Using EMLA or ELA-max cream really works and takes away my three year old daughter's anxiety and pain when changing her Insuflon, but the package insert warnings scare me. Do you have any information on the safety of using EMLA or ELA-max cream every four days in a three year old? Is it worth the risk? (29 Nov 2002)

  13. I am on a 2000 calorie diet, and I am trying to figure out what and how to eat much at my meals. Could you give me a meal plan for all three meals and snacks? (29 Nov 2002)

  14. My urine definitely had sort of a neon greenish color that lasted a couple of days. A day after the green urine, I had what felt like a slow, strong muscle twitch just below my right rib cage. I've never experienced that feeling before or noticed greenish urine before. Is this related to the diabetes? If so, what is the significance? (29 Nov 2002)

  15. I take have started using disposable insulin pens and travel frequently for work (sometimes for weeks at a time). Do you know if the prescription laws for pen needles are the same as for syringes? I know the laws vary by State for syringes, but is there a formal "listing" so I could know before I travel. (29 Nov 2002)

  16. How important are postprandial sugars if the A1c is in the acceptable close to 6%? If two people with diabetes were to have the same A1c, but one had vastly varying sugars while the other one had stable sugars, is there an increased risk for the first (i.e., cardiovascular or other risks) excluding hypoglycemia? (29 Nov 2002)

  17. My 13 year old daughter has type 1 diabetes and just finished up the 24 hour urine test that, but I do not understand the test results. (29 Nov 2002)

  18. I have an eight year old student who, despite his family's best efforts, has many highs and lows. The snacks he is told to eat are always carbs, like pretzels, crackers, vanilla wafers, etc. Even though he eats an appropriate amount, I am wondering if the addition of a little cheese or peanut butter or eating more complex carbs would help even him out. (29 Nov 2002)

  19. Up until week 30 of pregnancy, I able to control my sugars with diet and exercise, but since then, I have been having trouble. I am still sticking to diet, exercising, and I have recently started taking Zoloft at night.Could the Zoloft affect my sugar readings? Is it harder it is to control the sugar the later I get in my pregnancy? (29 Nov 2002)

  20. For about a year, my 15 year old son has constantly been complaining of stomachaches. He has already had an upper GI to check for ulcers, but that test was good., and his gastric emptying test was just barely within the normal limits. Will this get worse over time? Does this have to do with the nerves being affected by his sugar? (29 Nov 2002)

  21. My daughter was diagnosed two weeks ago with type 1 diabetes, and the diet that the dietitian gave us leaving the hospital is to much! My 67 pound child is expected to eat like an adult. She put on four pounds in one week, her stomach hurts because it is over full, and eating has become a chore for her. Can this be adjusted down to meet her needs? (27 Nov 2002)

  22. My 11 year old son was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes three months ago and is going through the honeymoon period. I know this is a trivial question but he loves basketball. Is this condition going to affect his height ? (27 Nov 2002)

  23. I noticed that it is not recommended that a person with diabetes consume ephedra. Can the consumption of ephedra be dangerous for a person with diabetes? What are the risks? Why is it not recommended? (27 Nov 2002)

  24. My 12 year old adopted sister has had type 1 diabetes since she was seven, and I would like to know more about the autoimmune process in its development as well as the relationship with other endocrine diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and adrenal insufficiency. (27 Nov 2002)

  25. My son was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes about three months ago, and I just found out that this insulin (NovoLog) which the doctors put him on immediately has not been FDA approved for use with children! I am extremely upset that I was never told this important fact. (27 Nov 2002)

  26. Since things like chicken, hot dogs, hamburger, cheese and eggs do not have carbs, are they considered free foods or do they need limitations? (27 Nov 2002)

  27. I'm a teenager who has had diabetes for seven years, and, since I've been diagnosed, I have gained a large amount of weight. I would like to lose it, but nothing seems to help. Are there any pills or something I can take to help me lose the weight? (27 Nov 2002)

  28. I am a 25 year old who has type 1 diabetes along with hypothyroidism, and as most women my age, I am concerned with weight gain. I have heard about a product called Trim Spa that can help with weight loss and does not contain ephedra. Are there any side affects of using this Trim Spa weight loss product and taking insulin injections? (27 Nov 2002)

  29. I'm a teenager who has had diabetes for seven years, and, since I've been diagnosed, I have gained a large amount of weight. I would like to lose it, but nothing seems to help. Are there any pills or something I can take to help me lose the weight? what do think look okay?? (27 Nov 2002)

  30. My husband recently had a routine physical during which he had a high bilirubin (2.56 mg/dl), and his urine was cloudy with a trace of ketones. Do these factors indicate that my husband is most likely developing diabetes (26 Nov 2002)

  31. My recently diagnosed three year old daughter has levels above 250 mg/dl [mmol/L] at least two out of the five tests each day, and we can't seem to get her better regulated. How much does this increase her risk of complications? What are the current opinions about the research that shows that the years before puberty do not count toward long term complications? What is your opinion? (26 Nov 2002)

  32. My five year old daughter has type 1 diabetes and is on Lantus, NPH, and Humalog. She frequently complains of severe stomach cramps and also gets very hot. Is this a side effect of the insulin? (26 Nov 2002)

  33. My mother, who has diabetes and arthritis, says that the bottom of her feet feel like they are walking on rocks or marbles. Her circulation appears to be good. Have you ever heard of this? (26 Nov 2002)

  34. My 22 year old sister was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes when she was 19, and her thyroid has completely shut down. She has been gaining weight, and the doctor wants to do more tests. Is this from her diabetes? What can be done about it? What are the side effects from a thyroid that does not work? (26 Nov 2002)

  35. Is it all right to allow my child to eat sweets sometimes if it is within the carb count allowed for the meal? Can I sometimes give her extra insulin and let her eat a candy if she wants it very badly in addition to her meal? (26 Nov 2002)

  36. My significant other has type 2 diabetes, and, since we have become sexually active, I have had recurring vaginal infections. Is it possible the infections could be due to a higher concentration of glucose in my partner's semen? (26 Nov 2002)

  37. For the past three years, I have trouble thinking of names and places when I'm having a conversation with someone. I feel so stupid at times. Do low blood sugars destroy brain cells? (26 Nov 2002)

  38. Is inhaled insulin going to be a reality anytime soon? Will it take the place of insulin injections? Will insulin ever be available in a pill form? (25 Nov 2002)

  39. I've had diabetes for four years, and recently I skipped almost a whole month before my last period. About a week or two after my period came, I contracted a UTI or a bladder infection. Could the bladder infection be the cause my irregular periods? (25 Nov 2002)

  40. My four year old son is receiving only 1 unit of NPH per day, and the doctor had said we could stop the insulin, but we thought we shouldn't. I would like to put him on the pump because I sometimes feel I am feeding his insulin. Do you think the pump is a good idea? Do you think he should have a C-peptide done? (25 Nov 2002)

  41. What is the sugar content in different kinds of alcohol? Which kind of alcohol has the lowest sugar content in it? (25 Nov 2002)

  42. Are patients with type 1 diabetes treated with oral hypoglycemic agents to improve their response to injected insulin? (25 Nov 2002)

  43. An eight year old student's blood sugars at school fluctuate widely. She is falling behind in her studies and always appears to be "spacing out" in class. I have been told by her doctor's office that there is no correlation between the fluctuation in blood sugar and the drop in her grades. Could you please send me information regarding this? (25 Nov 2002)

  44. My 12 year old sister always complains of severe vague abdominal pain almost every day. She claims to be compliant with insulin injections, but she always skips school and spends a lot of her time living in the hospital. She is not having any complication of diabetes yet. What is the possible cause in relation to her diabetes? (25 Nov 2002)

  45. My baby was born premature and had vitamins and iron drops, but at age 15 months my doctor said he did not need them any longer. At 21 months of age, he was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Would this have anything to do with his getting diabetes? (25 Nov 2002)

  46. For two months, my wife, who has had type 1 diabetes for 35 years, has had severe diarrhea, upset stomach, and vomiting. She is under the care of our family doctor who seems to be at a loss, and we've tried antibiotics, etc. Can prolonged diabetes cause this type of intestinal distress? (25 Nov 2002)

  47. I was reading the apple dumpling recipes, and I noticed that the recipes suggested fructose as a sugar substitute. However, my sister's doctor told us that fructose is worse than sugar, and someone with diabetes should never use it. Was he wrong? (25 Nov 2002)

  48. My son has had four seizures in the past two years, all of which have occurred suddenly and without warning. At the time of these seizures, my son's readings were within range, and all but one were preceded with high readings. We feel that these seizures are somehow caused by Ultralente, but the endocrinologist does not think they are diabetes related. (25 Nov 2002)

  49. I do not have diabetes, at least not diagnosed, and I have been having severe hypoglycemic symptoms at night. I have symptoms during the day as well but can treat them more quickly. I did not feel symptomatic at a blood sugar of of 63 mg/dl [3.5 mmol/L], yet on other days I have felt symptomatic at 77 mg/dl [4.3 mmol/L]. Any insight is greatly appreciated. (25 Nov 2002)

  50. We will visiting Canada and skiing there. Do you have any tips on keeping the pump (and the insulin) warm while skiing? Up until now we have had our daughter keep the pump close to her body so that body heat will keep it from freezing, but Australian ski fields aren't quite as cold! (24 Nov 2002)

  51. I do not have a job and Medicaid does not pay for test strips or syringes. Is there any foundation or group I can turn to for help? (24 Nov 2002)

  52. I am 37 years old, was diagnosed with gestational diabetes when I was 18 weeks pregnant, and, at that time, my fasting glucose was 120 mg/dl [6.7 mmol/L]with an A1c of 5.5%. The doctor gave me two weeks to control it with diet and exercise, but I could not, so she put me on insulin at 20 weeks. I have several questions. (24 Nov 2002)

  53. About eight months ago, I became numb from the waist down in both legs. I was hospitalized for an abscess in my lung at which time it was discovered I had undiagnosed diabetes, a pituitary macradnoma, and some disc herniation, but the numbness has remained unchanged for months. Is it likely that the numbness was caused by the undiagnosed diabetes? (24 Nov 2002)

  54. Both my father and I are treated with metformin and are experiencing stomach cramping and foul smelling gas. This cannot be a coincidence, but I can find no reference on the web. Can you help please with this (increasingly) major problem? (24 Nov 2002)

  55. I have gestational diabetes, and it looks like diet and exercise can no longer keep my blood glucose in the optimal range for my baby's health and mine. Are there any insulins that are pregnancy category B or A? (24 Nov 2002)

  56. My three year old daughter has had excessive thirst, constant thrush, tiredness, and irritability for nearly two years. Recently I have managed to control a lot of the symptoms by doing put her on a sugar free diet. Is there a possibility that this could be the start of diabetes? (24 Nov 2002)

  57. My husband recently was changed to Lantus, and, on the fourth day, his sugar levels went sky high, his speech was greatly effected, and his ability to walk properly and co-ordination became extremely poor. He was admitted into hospital with a suspected stroke, but a CAT scan showed no evidence of this. How many more people have reported these types of episodes with Lantus? (24 Nov 2002)

  58. A couple of years ago, my son had a seizure-like episode and was seen by a neurologist who said everything looked normal, and he thought he thought that this was a behavior problem. However, recently the same exact thing happened and he had a low blood sugar the next day. I am uncertain of whether I should take him to see a neurologist or an endocrinologist. (24 Nov 2002)

  59. My daughter has gotten several colds now, and her blood sugar goes up which I know is to be expected. Do Tylenol, Dimetapp, or Get Better Bear suckers have carbohydrate? There is no information on the labels, and I'd like to keep her blood glucose level under control as it makes her feel better. (24 Nov 2002)

  60. When our four and a half year old son started pumping about 6 months ago, we chose to use Novolog when we started, but his diabetes team requested that we change sites every two days even if they are fine due to potential long term tissue damage. With the new studies, is this as important? Should we not worry too much when we go three days? (24 Nov 2002)

  61. I want to know what to say to my four year old daughter who was diagnosed just over six months ago when she cries, tells me she's sick of her diabetes, and asks if she going to have it forever. This doesn't happen too often, thank God, and I usually get around by saying how lucky she is in lots of other ways. (23 Nov 2002)

  62. Do you have materials about diabetes in Cambodian and Vietnamese? (23 Nov 2002)

  63. I do not have diabetes or hypoglycemia, but my doctor has prescribed metformin twice daily as a way to help me lose weight. Does this make sense to you? (23 Nov 2002)

  64. I am seven weeks pregnant, my hemoglobin A1c is 6. 3%, and it's ok except I have had nausea and weakness, especially in the evening. I stayed in the hospital for week to treat this problem and felt much better, but, after I returned to home I felt badly. What should I do now? I don't want return to hospital again! (23 Nov 2002)

  65. I have heard there was a website where, if you type in a recipe, will provide the total carbohydrate per serving. My husband and I like to cook from scratch so this would be very helpful to us and my daughter who has diabetes. (23 Nov 2002)

  66. My son has been going through puberty and is embarrassed because hair is growing under only one armpit and not under the other. He asked me if this could be diabetes related, puberty related. or "am I a freak of nature". He assures me there is no problem with hair growth any where else. Any insight into this problem would be greatly appreciated. (23 Nov 2002)

  67. I work part time, don't make enough to buy test strips, and I don't have this under control by any means, but I can't find any help. I am considering suicide to end the fight, and everyone would be better off. My doctor said I am not depressed and I am just unhappy. Well, sorry to disappoint you doc, but this really sucks when I can't make enough money to stay alive. (23 Nov 2002)

  68. My nine year old son has been showing symptoms of diabetes. I have been very concerned lately, so I had a friend (whose son has diabetes) take his blood sugar, and it was normal, but she said if he keeps showing these symptoms to take him to the doctor. I just need more advice. (23 Nov 2002)

  69. In the past, I have given my son regular children's over-the-counter cold and cough medicines, but we have been struggling with a new insulin pump start, and I am hesitant to use anything that may raise his blood sugar. (23 Nov 2002)

  70. What does it mean when the diagnosis goes from abnormal weight gain to acanthosis? (23 Nov 2002)

  71. My six year old daughter was vaguely diagnosed with early diabetes, and now I am told she had reactive hypoglycemia and does not have diabetes. How can this be? Surely high blood sugars are not normal. Are there other tests I can request? Would a second opinion be justified? (23 Nov 2002)

  72. At least five out of every 10 people I talk to know a child with type 1 diabetes. Why are all of these kids getting this? Is this vaccine related? My daughter was one of the first to get the chicken pox vaccine which I later found out was taken off the market and replaced. I think someone needs to do a study to find out the true numbers of children getting this. This is more than average. Something is going on here. (23 Nov 2002)

  73. My daughter has had three episodes in the early morning. Could this be related to sugar some way? If so, what tests are necessary? Does this type of thing always show up in blood work? (23 Nov 2002)

  74. For some months now, my son's blood glucose levels have been consistently high, it seems that nothing we do brings them down, and he is now injecting 2 units of insulin per kg of body weight per day. I would appreciate any ideas as to what might be causing this, and any suggestions for dealing with it. (22 Nov 2002)

  75. In someone who does not have diabetes, how high does the blood sugar go after eating an extremely high carb, sugary meal? (22 Nov 2002)

  76. The doctors have diagnosed my daughter with type 1 diabetes, but she is being tested to be sure, and she will be starting insulin injections soon. Since they are not sure whether she has type 1, why can't she start on a type 2 regimen of pills and see if the pills bring her glucose to manageable levels? (22 Nov 2002)

  77. My 14 year old son has type 1 diabetes and is very active in sports, his blood sugar are good all summer, even with taking his pump off for five hours a day to swim at the pool., but he has a problem while wrestling. His doctor thinks he's getting an adrenaline rush. Do you know how we can control this? (22 Nov 2002)

  78. My daughter, diagnosed with diabetes when she was 12 years old and on an insulin pump for two years, is an athlete who is a sophomore in college on the basketball and track team. What should she eat and drink before practice or a game as well as before bedtime to prevent her from experiencing a low because of the level of exercise involved? (22 Nov 2002)

  79. Within 10-15 minutes of my son's night-time injection of slow-released insulin, his blood sugar can drop dramatically, and he has to take sugar tablets or sugary drinks to reverse it. This has occurred several times over the last couple of months and neither his consultant or specialist nurse can give a logical explanation. (22 Nov 2002)

  80. I am 16, I have recently been told I have Mauriac syndrome, and I have changed my whole way of life, but I have gained a lot of weight. I still feel tired, and I still have an upset stomach. I was just hoping you could give me some real advice since, with all the work, I am putting into this I would like to see some results. (22 Nov 2002)

  81. My three year old son, diagnosed with hypoglycemia, is currently being pricked 4-6 times a day for sugar and ketones. The endocrinologist. feels that he may have ketotic hypoglycemia. I always find hypoglycemia information under diabetes, but, at this point, my son does not have diabetes. (22 Nov 2002)

  82. I'm a 58 year old female who has had type 2 diabetes for about 11 years, and, I have pain in the back of my knee and down the calf. There's no comfortable position I can get in for relief, it keeps me awake at night, and it aches terribly when I walk. (22 Nov 2002)

  83. I have been told by a doctor that my pancreas doesn't properly produce amylase, and I believe that I have hypoglycemia, Are my hypoglycemic symptoms due in part or completely to the lack of amylase from my pancreas? (22 Nov 2002)

  84. Many of the older patients who have been on Lithium for long periods have developed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. What is the appropriate diet to help preserve kidney function? (22 Nov 2002)

  85. My 12 year old Caucasian son, who has had long history of being a little overweight, was diagnosed with type 1A diabetes, and he has negative islet cell antibodies.When I have asked him if there is a possibility of another type of diabetes, the doctor said does not see such a possibility, my son has Type 1A, and time will prove it. Should I look for the second opinion? (22 Nov 2002)

  86. Within the last year. my 12 year old daughter has been seen by a pediatrician for stomach pain, muscle cramping, constipation, headaches, and general illness. With the blood tests they have done, they have picked up low blood glucose twice, along with trace to 3+ protein, in her urine, and, this last time, she had trace ketones. I was wondering if the low blood sugar, high protein, and ketones are tied together. What kind of doctor do we see? (22 Nov 2002)

  87. I have recently been diagnosed with "Mauriac syndrome", and I am confused with the information I have been getting from your site, regarding this syndrome. The confusion lies with the statements that children are more prone to this syndrome, and it is due to poor control, "not enough insulin". (21 Nov 2002)

  88. My seven year old son was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes a little over a month ago, and I'm not sure about this at all. He is in his honeymoon as they say. Can I eliminate his insulin completely? What kind of comprehensive tests can he have to be sure about diagnosing the disease? (21 Nov 2002)

  89. My 10 year old was diagnosed about eight months ago, so I check my other two children once in a while, and my 13 month old had an elevated blood sugar, but a normal fasting one in the doctor's office. The doctor said he will test him again in the future but to watch for signs of diabetes. What would make his blood sugar be this high? What is the blood test called to see if you will have diabetes in the future? (21 Nov 2002)

  90. My 12 year old daughter, who has had type 1 diabetes for four years has a learning disability which the doctor thinks is ADHD, has been suicidal, and she was hospitalized because of it. I' m having a lot of behavior problems with her so I'm searching for information that would help me cope and understand. (21 Nov 2002)

  91. While the dawn phenomenon is well documented, have you seen patients who run a high blood glucose after dinner, up to bedtime and perhaps until 1:00 am? (21 Nov 2002)

  92. I have type 2 diabetes, and the doctor as given me two months or I go on insulin shots, and I'm trying to get regulated, by go on Weight Watchers and walk 30 minutes per day, The problem is The bottom of my feet burn really badly, and feet and legs are also swelling. They burn so bad, last thing I want to do is walk. Is there any thing I can do for it? (21 Nov 2002)

  93. My 77 year old mother had open heart surgery about a month ago, and we have been told that her right side of her pancreas is not working. What can be done for mom to live? Would an insulin pump help her? If not, what would? (21 Nov 2002)

  94. My daughter's first blood test results showed a normal for age haemoglobin level, but her ferritin, iron, and iron saturation levels were low, and anaemia has never been mentioned, presumably because her haemoglobin was normal. Should this issue be addressed? (21 Nov 2002)

  95. I was just informed that my one week old daughter, who was born at 35 weeks gestation and weighed 3 pounds 3.6 ounces, might have diabetes which could be lifelong or transient. I would like information on premature babies and diabetes and if there are support groups, etc. (21 Nov 2002)

  96. My 10 year old was diagnosed about eight months ago, so I check my other two children once in a while, and my 13 month old had an elevated blood sugar, but a normal fasting one in the doctor's office. The doctor said he will test him again in the future but to watch for signs of diabetes. What would make his blood sugar be this high? What is the blood test called to see if you will have diabetes in the future? (21 Nov 2002)

  97. My seven year old daughter seems to complain a lot about stomachaches and feeling hot. This is mostly at school. Her blood glucose is always within range at those times, but her temp is 98.8. Any reason for this? She will be going on the pump next month, will that help with these symptoms? (18 Nov 2002)

  98. I am a 33 year old female diagnosed about diabetes about 11 months ago, I am now 28 weeks pregnant, and I am having a hard time controlling my sugars. Currently I am taking twice daily NPH and Regular, and It seems that I have to eat little or nothing to get the numbers my doctor is looking for. I have several questions. (18 Nov 2002)

  99. My 10 year old daughter was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes about four months ago, and, at her latest check-up, her pediatric endocrinologist told us there is a new "type" called type 1.5, and that her pancreas is still producing insulin. Can you provide me with any information on type 1.5 diabetes? Would oral medication help? (18 Nov 2002)

  100. I read recently about research that was conducted which indicated a higher incidence of type 1 diabetes in homes using well water. We live in the country and have well water at home, and there are two other children (who likely have well water also) in my daughter's elementary school with type 1 diabetes. Is three out of a population of 450 students unusual? (18 Nov 2002)

  101. I cannot say it you had diabetes prior to conception, but with a normal fasting blood sugar I think that this is unlikely. However, you are at risk of developing diabetes later in life although this does not happen to everyone with gestational diabetes. You can minimize this risk with weight control, appropriate diet and exercise. (18 Nov 2002)

  102. Is there a waterproof, compact insulin pump that measures your sugar levels while giving you the insulin you need? (18 Nov 2002)

  103. I'm having a hard time with my daughter at lunch. She won't eat what is on the lunch tray, so I give her money to buy something different, but she ends buying junk foods, and most of the time she won't eat at all. The suggested taking her to the office to my daughter says if they do that, she just won't eat. Do you have any suggestions for me or the school as to what to do? (18 Nov 2002)

  104. Our health insurance provider refuses to pay for test strips for my daughter saying she uses too many, despite what her endocrinologist says. How can the insurance company question and even say no to the number of glucose test strips my daughter's doctor says is necessary? (18 Nov 2002)

  105. Both my 24 year old son and 23 year old daughter were born with nesidioblastosis and had to have their pancreases removed when they were babies. What are the chances of my children's children being born with the same problem? (18 Nov 2002)

  106. My son has been using a glucose meter for the last which five years with minimal adult supervision, only to have our insurance company change its designation to different meter requiring a parent to supervise to ensure he has sufficient blood. Can you help us contact the insurance company and argue on behalf? (18 Nov 2002)

  107. Five years ago, I was diagnosed with borderline diabetes and, with the diet and exercise, my blood sugars dropped to normal levels. However, about 10 years ago, I started having itchy bum. Is this related to diabetes? Is it a nerve problem? (18 Nov 2002)

  108. My overweight alcoholic domestic partner's doctor advised checking for diabetes, but he has not followed through with testing and is attempting to control it with diet.. At this point, I am scared to death that he is playing Russian roulette, and I want to to talk to his doctor. Am I out of line in being concerned? Am I out of line in talking with his doctor? (18 Nov 2002)

  109. My 15 year old daughter has had type 1 diabetes for four years, and, two nights ago, my mother found her on the floor, unconscious and foaming at the mouth. She has always awakened when her blood sugars dropped below 4.0 mmol/L [72 mg/dl]. (18 Nov 2002)

  110. My friend who has type 2 diabetes started on insulin about five months ago. She gained a lot of water weightin the first two days, then was given diuretics, subsequently gained a lot of real weight, and Her A1c is still not very good despite the increased and increasing levels of insulin she is getting. How much insulin can a person take? (18 Nov 2002)

  111. My gynecologist said that Glucophage might help me ovulate, and my dietitian said that the Glucophage might help my insulin resistance. Will the Glucophage help both the insulin resistance and the non ovulation problem? (18 Nov 2002)

  112. I have aggressive proliferative retinopathy with refractory macular edema first identified about seven months ago, and my vision is variable on a day to day basis. The next step may be stem cells and, as time is of the essence, I am wondering about any stem cell studies for proliferative retinopathy with macular edema. (18 Nov 2002)

  113. My son's recent A1c was 6.8%, and his doctor was thrilled. However, then I hear other people saying this score is still too high, and we should be shooting for the low 6% range, which seems impossible to achieve without more hypos. Can I possibly be hearing about different scales or standards of measurement? (17 Nov 2002)

  114. Can touch raise or lower blood sugar? How about words that give good feelings? How about humor? (17 Nov 2002)

  115. If my sugar is elevated during the night, I sometimes have aches in my legs, and I'll wake up with a sugar level that's slightly high. However, I don't have cramps if I wake up with normal for me blood sugar. Could that make that much difference? (17 Nov 2002)

  116. There are problems with diabetes on both side of my family, and I was just diagnosed with hypoglycemia. Is a form of diabetes? (17 Nov 2002)

  117. During all three pregnancies, I dropped sugar and watched my diet, but I am still 50 pounds overweight, fatigued all the time, and have been diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy. I really feel that something must be wrong, but most everyone chalks it up to the fact that I'm a working mother of three. Is it possible that I have a mild form of diabetes? (17 Nov 2002)

  118. Does eating sugar increase the risk of diabetes? (17 Nov 2002)

  119. Can people in the UK get insulin pumps? You hear loads about people in the US having them but I've never been offered one here. (17 Nov 2002)

  120. My obstetrician thinks that I have gestational diabetes or am at least borderline, but I'm not sure that I agree. Do you think these numbers are indicative of gestational diabetes? (17 Nov 2002)

  121. For three year prior to diagnosis, my son would throw up several times in a month. We had him through every test imaginable but nothing was found. Now that he's been diagnosed and his blood sugars are level, he doesn't throw up anymore, but his doctor doesn't think the throwing up was caused by a slow onset of diabetes. What are your thoughts? (17 Nov 2002)

  122. I have type 2 diabetes, and would like to know which fruits I must avoid. I would also like to know if pineapple should be avoided. (17 Nov 2002)

  123. The results of my three-hour GTT were in the acceptable range for fasting and the first hour, but slightly high for the second and third hours, but since then they have been in range, no matter what I eat. Could the GTT tests have been inaccurate for some reason? (17 Nov 2002)

  124. My friend, who has diabetes, takes insulin orally. Isn't he supposed to cut out sugar and refined carbs? He doesn't do that. He apparently thinks taking the pill is all he needs to do. What is your opinion? (17 Nov 2002)

  125. I am teenager who was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes two months ago, and I want to know if there is any problem if I fast during the month of Ramadan, even if my doctor disagrees. (14 Nov 2002)

  126. My son has had some high readings on my husband's meter so we made an appointment with our pediatrician the very next day where fasting blood test and urine was were normal. He sometimes displays symptoms of diabetes, but not consistently. Should we ask for more testing? Should we be concerned? (14 Nov 2002)

  127. Currently, my son is unable to test himself in the classroom because administration considers the lancet to be a weapon. My feelings are that if the lancet is a weapon, so are thumbtacks and scissors. Your thoughts are appreciated. (14 Nov 2002)

  128. My 31 year old husband has had type 1 diabetes since the age of about 12, and our three year old son may be showing signs of it. His doctor has not run any tests for this and tells me not to worry, but I worry every day. I see things in him that are so much like his father's symptoms. Should I take him in or am I being overly concerned because of my husband? (14 Nov 2002)

  129. I have had breast reconstruction two years ago using the tram flap method, and I would like to begin using a pump. Would it be suitable to use my stomach area for the infusion set? (14 Nov 2002)

  130. The doctor found high levels of sugar in my eight year old daughter's urine, but an in the office blood test found the blood sugar level to be normal. At this time, she is not underweight and does not seem to suffer any symptoms. Do you think the chances are high she has diabetes and is just in the initial stages? (14 Nov 2002)

  131. We have been checking my 18 month old a few times a day, and she has ranged anywhere from low to high. Her doctor keeps telling us that as long as it doesn't stay high or low, she is fine. Should I be concerned? Her doctor seems to be blowing me off. Should we get a second opinion? Should I ask to be referred to a pediatric endocrinologist? (14 Nov 2002)

  132. My daughter took a sample of her one year old daughter's urine to the doctor where said it had to go for further tests because it contained ketones. My grandchild has not been eating very well ever since she was weaned and this week she has lost weight rather than gained it. Are ketones a definite sign of diabetes or could it be something else? (14 Nov 2002)

  133. A specialist finally put my wife on insulin which seems to be helping, except for one thing -- she has gained a lot of her weight back. Yesterday alone, she gained six pounds. Is this normal? What can be done to help her alleviate this problem? Will this condition continue? (14 Nov 2002)

  134. When I search your website, I see several areas which answer questions about how schools handle blood glucose testing, but I can never find anything on schools in my State. Do you know how I can get this information? (14 Nov 2002)

  135. I have heard rumors that a US university recently has proven that it is hyperinsulinemia that precedes obesity long before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Could you please indicate the university/department/experts who are responsible for this important finding? (14 Nov 2002)

  136. I have begun to follow a teenage African-American girl who has a rash which the family believes is an insulin reaction. While I cannot exclude that, my previous experience with folks "allergic" to insulin was that the "rash" was predominantly at injection sites! How wrong am I? What specific measures can I do to prove or disprove and then manage this? (14 Nov 2002)

  137. I have just gotten used to using a syringe, and I do't have the up and down emotions. However, I recently saw a specialist in diabetes who wants to put me on a pump and high blood pressure medication. This is one of my worst nightmares -- to be plugged into a machine. (13 Nov 2002)

  138. At the beginning of the school year, I adjusted my seven year old daughter's basal rates and insulin to carb ratios. However, with the adjustments came low blood sugars usually around 9:00 am. Now she is afraid of going low around 9:00 am even when blood sugars are in range or a little high. Is there any way I can assure her about not going low at this time? (13 Nov 2002)

  139. Since starting a regimen of Lantus with Novolog, my A1c has actually been rising the past few months, my doctors have "blamed" the Lantus and have decided to switch me to NPH. I am little scared as there is an NPH peak, not to mention an additional morning shot. Is NPH past its prime? Are there not newer sources? After all, a lot has happened in the fifty years since they developed NPH. Should I be looking elsewhere? (13 Nov 2002)

  140. I'm 22 years old, was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when I was 12, and I was recently diagnosed with PCOS. I took insulin only until seven years ago when I was put on metformin. That was when my hair loss started, and I've been looking for the cause. Could be the metformin actually be causing all the hair loss? (13 Nov 2002)

  141. My partner, has experienced painful cramps in his right leg shortly after taking his insulin and has also indicated that he is being inconsistent in taking his medication. What can I do? (13 Nov 2002)

  142. It's virtually impossible, despite vigilant monitoring, carb counting, a very consistent meal plan and activity to control our son's diabetes, and we do not feel we are getting any clear answers from his diabetes team. Is it possible he's become brittle? Would we possibly be better off going to a different diabetes team? (13 Nov 2002)

  143. My six year old son has developed necrobiosis, and from what we are told, this does not happen to children. The specialists are and his endocrinologist are all stumped, and we are concerned about long term effects this can have. Any information you can provide would really help! (13 Nov 2002)

  144. How long does it take glucose to appear in the urine following an oral glucose dose (provided it is above the renal threshold) in a fasting individual? (13 Nov 2002)

  145. I've noticed that after two-three weeks, the Lantus vials have visible floating particulates. It is not cloudy, but clearly the appearance has changed. I assume this is not a good thing, and I am concerned that it may make the Lantus potency less predictable. Have these particulates been described? Any suggestions for avoiding them? (13 Nov 2002)

  146. My seven year old son, diagnosed with diabetes a little over two years ago, was diagnosed with celiac disease, and lately, I have noticed a strange phenomenon with his hypoglycemic episodes. Do you think he has some type of absorption problem aside from the celiac disease that I may be missing? (13 Nov 2002)

  147. My wife has been told that wearing light compression socks can help her, but I know people with diabetes should not have anything tight on their feet. Could you please let me know if this is true? (13 Nov 2002)

  148. My 69 year old obese sister, who has type 2 diabetes, had lots of back pain for which she took steroid shots and has become almost grotesquely "fat." Could this be due to Cushing's syndrome brought on by use of steroids? If so, is any treatment? Should she seek help from a specialist? (13 Nov 2002)

  149. I had to discontinue using my pump and go back to using the needle because, when I gave a bolus, it burned very badly. I called the pump manufacturer nurse today who has never heard of this and neither has my doctor. So now I am on 70/30 again, and my sugar is creeping back up. (13 Nov 2002)

  150. Several years ago, an endocrinologist told me that was too fat to use a pump. I finally found a doctor who would let use it, but, since I started (about eight months ago), I have not been able to regain control of my blood sugars. Should I push for more basal rates? Was that first endocrinologist correct when he said I am too fat to use a pump? (13 Nov 2002)

  151. My seven year old daughter does not have diabetes and is showing no signs of it, but I am very concerned about her because she is 20 pounds overweight, and there is a strong family history of diabetes. I would like a diet plan to follow and incorporate into her lifestyle. (13 Nov 2002)

  152. My thirteen year old daughter is having some difficulties in coping with her illness. She's getting very stubborn, and she is not following instructions properly so her sugar readings are high most of the time. What can we do as parents to help her out? (12 Nov 2002)

  153. Could you please explain the differences between the terms glycosylation and glycation? (12 Nov 2002)

  154. My 11 year old son who has had diabetes for a little over a year and is in good control (A1c 6%) using Novolog and Lantus wants to switch to pump therapy for no other reason then he wouldn't have to take as many injections a day. I have always said it was up to him to make decisions about his care. Is this a good reason to go on the pump? Is he a good candidate for it? (12 Nov 2002)

  155. Could a person with type 1 diabetes who has seizures from the sugar getting low develop full-blown epilepsy as result? I'm asking it because my friend is getting seizures more and more frequently with low sugar. (12 Nov 2002)

  156. My 67 pound two year old daughter has been diagnosed with postprandial hypoglycemia. She has high blood sugar after she eats, and the doctors only want to put her on a diet lower carbohydrates, but she does not eat. She has picked at food for a month now but is still gaining weight. Should the doctors be doing more for my child? (12 Nov 2002)

  157. My son has been on the pump for two months now and everything went well until five days ago when he suddenly started getting unexpected highs, and the boluses we gave were not as efficient as in the past. It seems to me that there are bubbles forming in the insulin cartridge. Can you please advise on how to get rid of these bubbles? (12 Nov 2002)

  158. I have noticed the pump companies are also commenting on how kids do less injections with their equipment since The patch/needle catheter that they use is changed every three days. Doesn't somebody manufacture that patch/needle thing for my daughter to use? Could she put the needle thing on her belly and then inject her insulin into the device? (12 Nov 2002)

  159. My partner feels that he has underdeveloped genitals due to the onset of diabetes during puberty. He is specifically interested to know if there is any hormonal treatment which might be beneficial to him at this stage. Is there any connection between type 1 diabetes and his condition? (12 Nov 2002)

  160. My daughter's urine showed no signs of an infection, but she had some glucose and ketones, so she was immediately sent to an endocrinologist and thought not to have diabetes. We are looking for reassurance that sometimes kids who do not have just spill glucose into their urine like that. What else could have caused the high urine glucose? (12 Nov 2002)

  161. I have been thinking of asking my eight year old daughter's clinic about using Lantus insulin. However, I have been to a Lantus website, have just read the "product information", and I am a bit concerned about what it says. Can you explain why I should or should not be concerned about this? (12 Nov 2002)

  162. How long should we wait after a correction bolus before doing another correction bolus if the blood sugar level has actually gone up or not gone down at all? (12 Nov 2002)

  163. I have had type 1 diabetes for 10 years along with rheumatoid arthritis, and over the course of the last year, I've developed numbness of my hand. However, my rheumatologist and my endocrinologist disagree as whether or not this is diabetic neuropathy. Is there some way to get to the bottom of what is causing the numbness? (11 Nov 2002)

  164. My nephew recently passed out while driving his car due to high blood sugar. He continues to eat candy and cookies and has again passed out this time at work. What can I due after he wakes up from passing out to get his blood sugar down to normal? Do I give him juice or carbs or what? I am very concerned and want to help. (11 Nov 2002)

  165. Our nearly 10 year old daughter was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes a week ago, and in trying to come to terms with this and understand, my husband and I are having some disagreements. My husband keeps saying all she needs to do is to lose weight, exercise, and she will beat this, but I keep trying to tell him this is a life-long illness. Can you give me some help? (11 Nov 2002)

  166. My 18 year old daughter was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes which I can't understand because she is grossly overweight. She is a 1200 calorie diet and takes the same doses of insulin every day without carb counting. Can this be type 1 diabetes? Doesn't she need to match calories to carbs? (11 Nov 2002)

  167. About five months before my three year old daughter's diagnosis, I took a short course of prednisone for severe inflammation. My memory is that my daughter had finished nursing by then, but I might have. Is it possible, if I did nurse her, that there was still enough prednisone in my body to cause my three year old daughter's diabetes? (11 Nov 2002)

  168. I have a seizure disorder, and after each seizure, I am tired, and my blood glucose level is low. Can low blood sugar be a cause of my seizures? Can I fix this? How? (11 Nov 2002)

  169. I work for an home health agency and care for a 10 year old girl who has child onset diabetes and Bardet-Biedl syndrome whose blood sugar levels fluctuate quite frequently. How do Bardet-Biedl syndrome and diabetes interact? Are problems with diabetes more severe? what complications could arise from the two disorders interacting with one another? (11 Nov 2002)

  170. My three year old son has had type 1 diabetes diagnosed at age 17 months, I have just checked my seven year old child (who does not have diabetes), and got a blood glucose reading that was very high. I also tested her urine for ketones, but she was negative for this. Would she have ketones if she was developing diabetes? (11 Nov 2002)

  171. Because of financial problems, almost all of our patients use visual blood glucose test strips. How reliable is this compared to a glucose meter or a lab sugar? (11 Nov 2002)

  172. I had gestational diabetes, and my ten month old daughter was a born tongue-tied, now has a hearing deficit, and is slow at learning things. Could my daughter's problems be related to my gestational diabetes? What are the chances that she will eventually diabetes? (11 Nov 2002)

  173. Since children with diabetes watch their diets, do they practice better nutrition and better health habits in later years? Do they do better in abstaining from drugs, alcohol, and tobacco? Have any studies been done? (11 Nov 2002)

  174. My six and a half year old niece was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes early this week. I know my sister is going to take the best care humanly possible of her little girl. Even with the best care, is it possible that this illness can be uncontrollable? (6 Nov 2002)

  175. The teacher noticed that my friend's four year old daughter had frequent urination and she had a high blood sugar as checked by the school nurse. However, her blood sugar and A1c were normal at the doctor's. I do not want to alarm my friend or cause her undue stress, but I am concerned that this doctor isn't very well versed in type 1 diabetes. Where should she turn next? (6 Nov 2002)

  176. My 51 year old sister just called me and said saying the doctors think she has diabetes because today she had an elevated blood sugar. What kind of diabetes could she have? Isn't she too old for type 1? Aren't the symptoms more intense than type 2? Could it possibly be something else, like a tumor? (6 Nov 2002)

  177. My three year old daughter, currently taking NPH in the morning and at bedtime, as been low around 11:00 am for the last three days. The doctor says the NPH should not be peaking at this time, so what would cause the low sugar? (6 Nov 2002)

  178. I just posted my daughter's case on the message board "Alternatives to pancreatectomy Kristin's miracle". Do you know of anyone else using Sandostatin for its side effects of lowering insulin as an alternative to diazoxide or surgery? (6 Nov 2002)

  179. About a year ago, at the age of 63, I was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, but during my last appointment, my doctor said he thought I might actually have type 1.5 or MODY. What are your comments on my case? What type of diabetes do I have? (6 Nov 2002)

  180. My stepdaughter has type 1 diabetes, along with seasonal allergies, and her doctor told us to throw away her Zyrtec because it contained sugar. I don't know what to give her because everything that is a syrup contains sugar. What allergy products would be safe to give my step daughter? (6 Nov 2002)

  181. Before diagnosis of his type 1 diabetes about eight months ago, my 10 years old had a habit of scratching his penis in the bed mattress, and after the diagnosis I read that this was related to diabetes. These days he started to do the same thing again.Do you think that he has something serious in his sexual area? (6 Nov 2002)

  182. Is it true that now-a-days children are more likely to get diabetes than adults? If so, why? (6 Nov 2002)

  183. I have a student with type 1 diabetes, and all of this current year his blood sugar has been running very high. I think it is a crime for a child today, who can take advantage of all of our modern technology and new insulins, to be facing problems basically from lack of concern by family. Is it some form of abuse or neglect to not provide adequate care for a child with diabetes? (6 Nov 2002)

  184. My son's school staff was trained, but they gave him his snack which he chose not to eat so he passed out and his arms turned blue. So I no longer trust the safety of my child at school. There is a plan set up, and more training is on the way. Mistakes and bad decisions are made, so unpredictable things go wrong, and now I want a nurse in the school. (6 Nov 2002)

  185. I have asked the manufacturer twice if other people are experiencing these same problems with this new pump model, but they contend that they have heard no complaints. Now that my third brand new pump has failed me, I seriously doubt that this is a reliable product. Have others experienced problems with a new pump model? (6 Nov 2002)

  186. If you have a lower A1c, can you delay complications? If it stays low, can you put off complications? Has anyone ever looked at this? Are there any studies on people with type 1 diabetes? Is it just a matter of time that complications will occur? (4 Nov 2002)

  187. My daughter's blood sugars are good for a few days, then we are in the high range again. We tried to get her an insulin pump about eight months ago, but they told me her C-peptide level was too high. What does this mean? Is there another way to get her better medical care? (4 Nov 2002)

  188. If diabetes occurs due to beta cells being unable to produce insulin, why are there problems with low blood sugar that require treatment with glucagon? Why can't the body regulate the lows itself and just need assistance for the highs? (4 Nov 2002)

  189. My daughter and my husband recently were switched to Lantus insulin, and both of them of them have started shaking in their right hand. Is this a possible side effect of Lantus? (4 Nov 2002)

  190. I have been getting major muscle cramps throughout my whole body sometimes (10-15 cramps at a time) which seem to occur if my blood sugar goes low or high. Maybe you can help me with this problem. I went to different doctors, but got no help. (4 Nov 2002)

  191. I have been on the insulin pump for almost two years, but my control has not gotten any better. I am so confused and really depressed that, after all of my hard work in the gym and paying such close attention to my diet, I am not seeing any results. What is going on? (4 Nov 2002)

  192. My daughter's boyfriend spent the night at our home. At 10:00 pm, his blood sugar was low, and he then took his insulin injection. He ate a cheese sandwich with a glass of orange juice, and at 2:30 am, he had a seizure. Should he have taken his insulin when his sugar was low? (4 Nov 2002)

  193. My 15 year old daughter has developed a sunken or depressed quarter-sized flat spot on the left side of her head. Any suggestions as to where to start to look up such a thing? (4 Nov 2002)

  194. Our daughter was diagnosed with type one diabetes at the age of nine weeks, and we were wondering if you or any of your colleagues have heard of a child so young. Is there any advice or information for parents of infants with diabetes? (4 Nov 2002)

  195. We have asked the parents of a new child in our daycare to fill out how much the child is allowed to eat, but we were told us it didn't really matter, and we are becoming very concerned about this because his blood sugar readings have been very low. Can you recommend some way of us to measure and be sure he is getting the right amount of food? (4 Nov 2002)

  196. I take Humalog before meals and NPH in the evening. I actually thought I was doing great with regards to my blood glucose levels, until my pharmacist told me I was taking way too much insulin. Am I taking more insulin than normal? Is that good for me? I figured as long as my blood sugar levels are under control, things are good. (4 Nov 2002)


The Diabetes Team

Physicians
Bill Jones, MD (Specialist in the management of diabetes during pregnancy, member since April 1997)
Marco Songini, MD (Italy) (Pediatric, adolescent, and adult endocrinologist and diabetologist, member since April 1997)
Larry Deeb, MD (Pediatric Endocrinologist, member since July 1998)
John Schulga, MBChB MRCGP MRCP FRCPCH (UK) (Consultant Paediatrician in childhood and adolescent diabetes and endocrinology, member since July 1999)
Stuart Brink, MD (Pediatric Endocrinologist, member since October 1999)
Matthew Brown, MD (Pediatrician and a Pediatric Diabetologist, member since January 2000)
Jim Lane, MD (Adult Endocrinologist, member since November 2000)
David Schwartz, MD (Pediatric Endocrinologist, member since May 2001)
Andrea Scaramuzza, MD (Italy) (Pediatric Endocrinologist, member since October 2003)
Fran Kaufman, MD (Pediatric Endocrinologist, member since August 2006)
Linda DiMeglio, MD (Pediatric Endocrinologist)

Nurses
Barb Schreiner, RN, MPH, CDE (Diabetes Nurse Specialist, member since July 2002)
Jane Seley, RN, GNP, MPH, MSN, CDE, CHES (Diabetes Nurse Practitioner, member since August 2002)
Joe Solowiejczyk, RN, MSW (Family Therapist, member since April 2010)
Linda Mackowiak, RN, MS, FNP, CDE (Diabetes Nurse Specialist)

Psychologists
Jill Weissberg-Benchell, PhD (Medical Psychology and Psychiatry, member since January 2000)

Dietitians
James Michael Schurig, MS, RD, LD, CDE (Dietitian, member since December 2000)

Exercise Physiologists
Rick Philbin, M.Ed., A.T.C., C.S.C.S (Sports Medicine, member since July 2004)

Researchers
Lois Schmidt Finney, RD, MPH, CDE (DPT-1 Research Coordinator, member since July 1998)
Heather Speer, MPH, CCRC, CDE (Clinical Diabetes Research and Education Coordinator, member since July 1998)

Social Workers
Debbie Butler, CDE, MSW, LICSW (Licensed Clinical Social Worker, member since October 2004)


And Our Occasional Experts



                 
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Last Updated: Tuesday April 06, 2010 15:09:42
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